What is Plantar Fasciitis?
Heel pain is a common presenting complaint in the foot and ankle practice, and plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic pain beneath the heel in adults, making up 11–15% of the foot symptoms requiring professional care among adults. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people will develop plantar fasciitis during their lifetime. It is more common in middle-aged obese females and young male athletes and has a higher incidence in the athletic population though not all suffering requires medical treatment. In the literature, Plantar Fasciitis has been described as painful heel syndrome, chronic plantar heel pain, heel spur syndrome, runner’s heel, and calcaneal periostitis.
There are some factors associated with PF will help identifying at risk individuals and development of new and improved preventative and treatment strategies. Obesity is present in up to 70% of patients with PF. According to the literatures, there is a strong association between increased body mass index (BMI) and Plantar fasciitis in a non-athletic population. The evidence suggests that unlike weight, height has no association with PF. More specifically, increased weight is associated with Plantar Fasciitis but not necessarily with reduced height.
Heel spurs have commonly been implicated as a risk factor for Plantar Fasciitis. Current studies demonstrate a highly significant association between calcaneal spur and PF.
There are also deficits in flexibility of the plantar flexor muscles may contribute to a greater fascia stretching. Some reports suggest that 81–86% of patients with PF have excessive pronation. Despite the fact that the pronated foot posture and over-pronation during gait are commonly cited as causative factors for PF, There is conflicting evidence with regard to the association of static foot posture and dynamic foot motion with PF.